Eyes Above The Waves

Robert O'Callahan. Christian. Repatriate Kiwi. Hacker.

Friday 15 May 2015

Using rr To Debug Dropped Video Frames In Gecko

Lately I've been working on a project to make video rendering smoother in Firefox, by sending our entire queue of decoded timestamped frames to the compositor and making the compositor responsible for choosing the correct video frame to display every time we composite the window. I've been running a testcase with a 60fps video, which should draw each video frame exactly once, with logging to show when that isn't the case (i.e. we dropped or duplicated a frame). rr is excellent for debugging such problems! It's low overhead so it doesn't change the results much. After recording a run, I examine the log to identify dropped or dup'ed frames, and then it's easy to use rr to replay the execution and figure out exactly why each frame was dropped or dup'ed. Using a regular interactive debugger to debug such issues is nigh-impossible since stopping the application in the debugger totally messes up the timing --- and you don't know which frame is going to have a problem, so you don't know when to stop anyway.

I've been using rr on optimized Firefox builds because debug builds are too slow for this work, and it turns out rr with reverse execution really helps debugging optimized code. One of the downsides of debugging optimized code is the dreaded "Value optimized out" errors you often get trying to print values in gdb. When that happens under rr, you can nearly always find the correct value by doing "reverse-step" or "reverse-next" until you reach a program point where the variable wasn't optimized out.

I've found it's taking me some time to learn to use reverse execution effectively. Finding the fastest way to debug a problem is a challenge, because reverse execution makes new and much more effective strategies available that I'm not used to having. For example, several times I've found myself exploring the control flow of a function invocation by running (forwards or backwards) to the start of a function and then stepping forwards from there, because that's how I'm used to working, when it would be more effective to set a breakpoint inside the function and then reverse-next a few times to see how we got there.

But even though I'm still learning, debugging is much more fun now!