Thursday 30 June 2011
Summary The permissions model we have evolved for Web applications so far is mostly on the right track; introducing Android-like bundling of permissions with "up front" permission grants would be a mistake.
Traditionally Web applications are untrusted, treated as potentially malicious, and hence "sandboxed" to deny them the ability to affect the user's system or access user data. As we add capabilities to the Web platform, we sometimes encounter situations where legitimate applications want functionality that must be denied to malicious applications. A natural solution is to ask the user whether such requests should be permitted. Long ago we learned that modal requests --- interrupting the application with a warning, and forcing the user to OK/Cancel before proceeding any further --- was ineffective for security, because users quickly learn to OK such warnings without even reading them. An alternative approach is "passive confirmation UI": for example, UI appears requesting a permission, but the user can ignore it and continue using the application, so users who don't read the message are less likely to grant permission by default. Firefox's geolocation permission UI is a good example of this.
The Permissions Bundle Model
That approach seems OK but as apps use more features that require permissions, there is a desire to not bombard users with lots of permission prompts, even passive ones. A number of people have proposed moving to an Android-like model. On stock Android systems, when the user starts using an application for the first time, they are presented with a list of permission requests; the user either grants them all or not. If permissions are denied, the app does not run, otherwise it runs with no further prompts.
Personally I think that is a terrible model. There are two main problems:
- There is no way for a user to know why an app needs the permissions. For example, Google Music requests, among others, "read phone state and identity", "display system-level alerts", "modify global system settings", and "send sticky broadcast" (whatever that is!). Why should it need to do those things just to play music? I have no idea. Remember that I haven't even been able to run the application yet. As a user, I just don't have the information I need to know whether the request is reasonable or not.
- If I don't grant the permissions, I can't use the app. Of course I want to use the app, since I downloaded it, so of course I am going to grant the permissions. It's the old OK/Cancel modal dialog all over again.
Someone should do a study where they promote a simple game app which requests absurdly overbroad permissions, and see how many users download the game but reject it at the permissions screen. I'll be amazed if it's more than tiny fraction of users. If so, the permissions screen should be removed, because it provides no security and interferes with usability.
The most important thing we can do is to remove the need to ask for permission to use a feature in the first place. We can often do this by carefully designing our APIs.
Implicit Permission Grants
Good old <input type="file"> accidentally invented an excellent permissions model for file I/O. The app asks the user to choose a file to load, and in the process the user implicitly grants the app permission to read that file! The same sort of approach works in other situations. For example, recently someone proposed that browsers offer permission UI to give an app access to the user's telephone number. Instead, <input type="tel"> could pop up a on-screen keyboard optimized for phone number entry, with access to the user's contacts database and perhaps a "my number" button. Then the application UI would contain "Enter your phone number: " and the user would easily be able to do so --- or enter another number if they don't want to reveal their own.
Another example of this would be registering Web apps as content-type handlers. Instead of asking for permission to do that, we should simply let any Web app register as any content-type handler. However, when the user downloads content that could be handled by a Web app, then we would prompt the user to choose which app to use, highlighting their last-chosen application and secondarily any newly registered app. (Android does something like this.)
Ask Forgiveness, Not Permission
In many cases the actions of a malicious application can be easily detected and safely undone. For example, the ability to play sound through nearby Bluetooth devices could be abused to annoy the user, but the user will easily be able to detect the problem and the system should offer convenient UI to identify the abusive app and silence it --- per-application volume control. There is no need for a priori permission requests in such cases.
Remember This Decision
I'll assume without further discussion that the system can automatically grant permission to do whatever the app was permitted to do before, unless the user chooses otherwise.
Permissions In Context
Once we've reduced permission requests to the bare minimum, we still have the question of whether to ask for permissions "up front" or while the application is running. I firmly believe it's best for applications to request permission in the context of the user action that requires that permission. For example, it's easy for me to understand that when I click on the "show my location" button in Google Maps, it's going to want my location.
This leaves us with a (smaller) version of the "bombarded by prompts" problem that we started with. Personally I think we should live with it. IMHO the alternative of "bundled permissions" doesn't solve the problem, it simply works around it by teaching users to grant all permissions. "Bombarded by prompts", viewed in a better light, is a process of making informed permission decisions one by one as the user becomes familiar with the app.
One wrinkle is that lazy app developers can turn the "permissions in context" model back into the "bundled permissions" model by activating APIs up-front and refusing to let the application proceed until all requests are granted. My hope is that if most apps don't behave that way, users will develop higher expectations and be distrustful of lazy apps.